A variety or trees that are smaller than the species tree, but retains all of the characteristics of a full size species tree is called a dwarf tree. The process of growing small plant is really a very simple one, and is based upon one of the commonest principles of vegetable physiology. We all know that anything that retards in any way the free circulation of the sap, also cause that a certain extent the formation of wood and leaves. This may be done by grafting, by confining the roots, withholding water, bending the branches, or in a hundred other ways, which all proceed upon the same principle. Dwarf can be achieved by grafting,by confining the roots, with holding water, bending the branches, or in a hundred other ways, which all proceed upon the same principle. Nature generally struggles against this treatment for a while, until her powers seem in a great measure exhausted, when she quietly yields to the power of art. The first part (and very important) of the process is to select the very smallest seeds from the smallest plants.

In order to grow dwarf a plant, the pots used being narrow and shallow, so that they held but a small quantity of soil compared with the wants of the plants, and no more water being given than what was barely sufficient to keep them alive; in this way the plant is kept alive and starts living depending to the supplied conditions (less space, less ground, less water, etc).

The plants very often used in dwarfing are pines, junipers, cypresses, bamboos, peach and plum trees, and a species of small-leaved elm; these species are often use because them are easy to be shaped, easy to be modeled, are not hard to grow, them do not need special growing conditions.